NUCIDA Bangkok Glossary

In the NUCIDA Bangkok Glossary you will find many important technical terms from the world of finance, in­for­ma­tion tech­no­lo­gy, software de­ve­lop­ment and quality ma­nage­ment briefly explained.

Abstract Test Case
See also: conctrete test case; Synonyms: logical test case; A test case without concrete input and output values for input data and predicted results. It uses logical operators because the concrete ones are not yet defined or available.
Acceptance Criteria
Those criteria that a system or component must meet in order to be accepted by the user, customer, or authorized entity.
Acceptance Test
See also: user acceptance test; synonyms: Acceptance testing; Formal testing with respect to user requirements and needs or business processes. It is performed to enable a client or authorized entity to decide, based on the acceptance criteria, whether or not to accept a system.
Synonyms: Accessibility; The degree to which a product or system can be used by a group of people as broad as possible in terms of their capabilities to achieve a given goal in a given context of use.
Accessibility Testing
Synonyms: Accessibility testing; testing to determine how easy it is for users with disabilities to use a component or system.
Access Security Test
See also: functionality testing; The performance of tests to determine the security (in the sense of access protection) of a software product.
Actual Result
Synonyms: tats; In test observed/generated behavior of a component or system under specified conditions.
Allocated Gold
Term that refers to the ownership of the gold. Allocated gold is physical gold that is legally the exclusive, direct property of its owner.
Generally speaking, an alloy is a material consisting of at least two different metals. Depending on the type of alloying partners and their respective mass fraction, alloys can have very different properties, such as coloration, hardness or machinability.
Alloy: Bronze
Bronze is a metal alloy of copper and tin and is one of the very first alloys used by mankind. Since the Bronze Age, tools, weapons and jewelry are made of this material. Bronze has several advantages over its parent metals, including being harder and more resistant to cutting than copper.
Alloy: Gold
In its pure form, gold is extremely soft and easily malleable. High-quality jewelry is usually made of gold alloys with a fineness of 750 (18 carat) or above. Classic gold alloys consist of gold, silver and copper. A well-known example of this is the Krugerrand. Red gold is a mixture of fine gold, copper and only small amounts of silver. The high copper content results in a red color and a high hardness of the material. In yellow gold, silver and copper are added in approximately equal amounts. Green gold is a gold alloy of fine gold and silver, without copper additions. Depending on the mixing ratios, the shades of color can vary in intensity. Other additions, such as zinc, indium, cadmium, or gallium, can affect the melting temperature of gold. Additives such as platinum or nickel increase the hardness of the mixed alloy.
Alloy: Silver
Silver can be alloyed with many other metals besides gold. The most important silver alloys today consist of an admixture of copper. They are used, among other things, in the manufacture of coins, jewelry and cutlery. For this reason, silver with a fineness of 925 thousandths of a part of silver is also called sterling silver after the British pound sterling.
See also: misaction, error condition, error effect, deviation, problem; discrepancy caused by deviation from (justified) expectations of the software product. Expectations may be based on a requirements specification, design specifications, user documentation, standards, specific ideas, or other experience. Anomalies may also, but not limited to, be uncovered through reviews, testing, analysis, compilation, or use of the software product or its documentation.
Application Case
A sequence of events in a dialog between an actor and a component or system that leads to a concrete result. An actor can be a user or anything that can exchange information with the system.
Argentum is the Latin term for silver (Ag). Nowadays, the term is hardly used among gold buyers and collectors. The name Argentum is still used as a proper name by one or the other company, which would like to adorn themselves with the word silver, without doing this too obviously. Of course, the term is also to be distinguished from the Latin word Aurum. This is the Latin term for gold. It can also be assumed that the naming of the chemical symbol Ag also originates from the letters 1 and 3 from the word. Argentum is of course also an integral part of many alloys with gold. This makes the yellow precious metal brighter. Palladium and platinum has a similar color, but also a lower value. The word is separated as follows: Ar-gen-tum.
Trading or investment property on the stock exchange.
Free funds (financial resources) that can be invested, e.g. in precious metals, shares, building savings contracts, life insurance, etc.
An independent testing of software products and processes to determine conformance to standards, guidelines, specifications, and/or procedures based on objective criteria, including documents that (1) define the design or content of the products to be created, (2) describe the process of creating the products, (3) and specify how conformance to the standards and guidelines can be demonstrated or measured.
Aurum is the Latin name for gold (Au). Besides the fact that aurum is a synonym for gold, of course, all the content points about the precious metal are the same. The chemical element for gold is Au, which obviously consists of the first two letters of the word. Not many metals are this colorful. Only copper and some others are other precious metals with the same color intensity. The current monthly trend over the past few quarters has been that more and more "Aurum" is being stored in bonded warehouses. In bonded warehouses, precious metals are stored tax-free in other countries without having to cross borders. It is stored directly in the corresponding country. Gold and silver are the most popular precious metals, which stimulate stock lists especially in Switzerland or Hong Kong.
Der Grad, zu dem eine Komponente oder ein System im operativen Betrieb bzw. für die Nutzung zur Verfügung steht.
Base Price
The strike price is the price at which one can sell an underlying asset on the record date (expiration date). Strike prices exist primarily for options. They describe the value that an investor can redeem with the option. This value can be deposited in various forms. Typically, shares are the so-called underlying. However, commodities such as gold but also grain or pig halves, etc. are also conceivable. Known are also options with the underlying interest, currencies or even options. With the option business the owner of the option does not have to buy the basic value at the current price, but can redeem its option against it. Most options are limited in time and can also expire afterwards and not be redeemed.
Bearer Bond
A bearer bond is a subtype of bond in which the owner of the certificate is not mentioned by name on the certificate. Bearer bonds have a high degree of fungibility due to their informal transferability, so that they can also be traded as securities on a stock exchange.
See bear market
Bear Market
Sustained downward movement of prices and the time during which prices remain low. Also referred to as a bear market. The opposite is a bull market.
The response of a component or system to a set of inputs given certain preconditions.
Ben Bernanke
U.S. economist who succeeded Alan Greenspan as Chairman of the Federal Reserve from February 1, 2006, to early 2014.
Reference value against which one can measure one's own investment or the performance of funds. Important indices such as the DAX often serve as benchmarks.
Beta Test
Synonyms: Field test; testing or trial operation of a software product by representative customers/users in the customer's/user's deployment environment to determine whether a component or system meets customer needs and fits business processes. Beta testing is a type of external acceptance test used to obtain feedback from the market before final release.
Black Box Test Design Process
Synonyms: Black-box procedure, specification-based procedure, specification-oriented test design procedure, specification-based test design procedure, specification-based procedure, black-box test design procedure; A procedure for deriving and selecting test cases. It is based on an analysis of the functional or non-functional requirements (specifications) of a component or system without considering its internal structure.
Blister Card
Anyone who purchases precious metals such as coins or bars often expects the item to be secure on the one hand and attractively packaged on the other. Here, the blister card has meanwhile established itself as packaging for precious metals of all kinds.
Blister Card: Optical Stimuli
However, the fact that the packaging of a precious metal is not only about the robustness and security, but also the external appearance, is an important aspect. With the blister card, you acquire a visually very appealing packaging that shows off the precious metal well in many areas of application. Whether in your own display case or as a gift for others: The blister card protects professionally and in addition lets the content be shown off perfectly.
Blister Card: Protection against Counterfeiting
In addition to the external protective function of blister cards, you also acquire packaging that protects you against counterfeiting. Thus, all blister cards used by Kettner Edelmetalle are provided with an individual serial number which, in combination with a certificate, makes the precious metal almost forgery-proof.
Blister Card: Robust and Practical
The air- and waterproof welded blister card optimally protects the precious metal and thus preserves the original condition over a long period of time. This means you can transfer the item to your collection in its original packaging and risk no scratches, fingerprints or other damage by removing it from the packaging. A major advantage that results from this: The precious metal retains its condition and allows you to make a high profit when you resell it. Coins like the Maple Leaf Gold do not usually reach you in blister cards. We ship coins in coin capsules.
Blister Card: Serial Number on the Bar
Rand Refinery demonstrates that existing rules of blister cards can also be broken. Until now, it was typical to print the individual serial number of an ingot on the paper insert between the plastic layers. Anyone who removed the blister could not accurately identify the bar. Rand Refinery now began stamping the serial numbers directly on the bar. Before that, an "RR" appears for the name of the manufacturer. With this bar, the African producer may even manage to diminish the importance of coins like the Gold Somalia Elephant, as they even have a motif on the back. The most famous gold bars in the blister are the Degussa gold bars, which we can also highly recommend to you!
Blister Card: Sturdy Standard
A blister card is a packaging for precious metals of all kinds. It is made of transparent plastic, which allows you to see the contents on the front and back, and yet is a sturdy packaging. Due to the standardized size of the card, various silver and gold bars can be presented decoratively.
Bond, Debenture
Security, bond or debenture with a fixed interest rate. This often refers to government long-term treasury bonds.
Bonded Warehouse
Bonded warehouses have existed in Switzerland since the 1970s and in Hong Kong for some time. Originally, they were intended as transit warehouses to facilitate trade. If goods were not imported into Switzerland, neither import duties nor value added tax had to be paid. Now that banking secrecy has been abolished in Switzerland and tax evaders are extradited to their home country, these warehouses offer the opportunity to deposit at least precious metals and other movable assets. In addition to precious metals, it is not uncommon for works of art and countless liters of wine to be stored in the inconspicuous high-security facilities. Discretion is another criterion for the increasing demand. However, anonymity is the main selling point, and it is precisely this anonymity that encourages abuse. If, for example, gold is purchased in this fiscal no-man's land and stored there, neither value-added tax nor import duties are incurred. As long as this gold does not leave the free warehouse, no customs duties are incurred for delivery. The operators, mostly forwarding companies, have to declare what is in their warehouses, but not who the owner is. Random checks are made by the customs authorities, but only with regard to whether someone can basically afford what they have stored.
Brilliant is a synonym for a diamond with the so-called brilliant cut. This cut was developed around 1910 and is characterized by its particular fineness and brilliance. The term "brilliant" comes from the French adjective "brillamment" and means "shining" or "radiant". These words also describe the special feature of the brilliant very well: It is characterized by the fact that it refracts the light in a very special way and thus great light, brilliance and color games appear. That is why it is often bought for jewelry in combination of gold and silver. Characteristics of the brilliant cut are that the brilliant consists of at least 56 facets plus table (the wider facet at the top). These break down as follows: At least 32 facets plus table in the upper part and at least 24 facet including culet (the pointed end) in the lower part. Examples of brilliant-cut diamonds include the Tolkowsky diamond, which is particularly high-yielding in terms of light. Also, the Ideal diamond, which became famous in 1926. One of the newest brilliant is the Scandinavian Standard Brilliant from 1968.
Broadband Delphi
An expert-based test estimation procedure, with the goal of arriving at the most accurate estimate possible by involving team members.
Broken Gold
Again and again you come across offers that they want to buy broken gold from you. But what is that? So-called broken gold is usually jewelry that is made of gold, but is broken or broken and where it would no longer make purely economic sense to repair it. However, the category of broken gold also includes gold remnants that are left over during the jewelry manufacturing process.
Broken Gold: What is its Value?
The owners of broken gold often underestimate the value of their broken gold. In most cases, the broken jewelry only has an ideal value for them, since it can no longer be worn. However, it should not be forgotten that broken gold can be turned into hard cash: The higher the fine gold content of the jewelry, the more the broken gold is worth.
Broken Gold: What to look for in the Sale?
When selling broken gold, you should first and foremost pay attention to the gold price trend. Ideally, you sell your broken gold when the gold price is very high, because at this time you can get a great return.
Bullion Banks
Investment banks that are members of the LBMA and act like wholesalers by trading large quantities of gold.
See bull market
Bull Market
Sustained rise in prices and the period during which prices remain high. Also called a bull market or bull market. The opposite is a bear market.
Burndown Chart
A publicly available chart that shows outstanding effort versus time in a sprint (iteration). It shows status and trend of task completion in a Sprint. The X-axis typically represents days in a Sprint, while the Y-axis represents outstanding effort (typically in either net work time or story points).
Business Go-Live
See also: Technical go-live; The business go-live takes place after the technical go-live and corresponds roughly to the productive live go. Customers can access and use the product.
Calculate Gold Value of Scrap Gold
If you sell scrap gold, you should check the price carefully. Multiply the weight by the current gold price. The gold price is usually given in ounces. To calculate your gold price in grams: weight in grams divided by 31.1 multiplied by the gold rate (weight / 31.1 * gold rate).
Capital Gains Tax
Special income tax on certain domestic investment income.
Carat, also called metric carat, is the measurement of the size of a gemstone. One metric carat is 0.2 grams. Carat is a legally defined unit, which is indicated in Germany with the sign "Kt" (Karat). It was introduced in1875 according to the Metre Convention. Carat as a unit of weight, however, must not be confused with carat as a measurement for the purity of gold. The term carat is derived from the Latin word "carratus", whose origin in turn lies in Greek as a term for a legume. This fruit of the carob tree has the shape of a croissant and its seeds were often used as weight stones in the past, as they were said to always have the same size and therefore the same weight. This weight was 0.2 grams.
Carat Prices
Depending on the gemstone, the price per carat can vary greatly as it is influenced by many factors. Examples include color, clarity, cut, place of origin, size, supply chain, fashion, shape, and treatment.
Central Bank
Institution responsible for the monetary and currency policy of a state. In many countries, the central bank's main objective is to maintain the price level and monetary stability.
Unit certificate of an investment fund.
CFTC, Commodity Futures Trading Commission
American authority that controls all commodities traded on the American stock exchange.
Graphical representation of the development of a price, e.g. for the gold price, securities, etc.
Chemical Element Gold
The chemical element of gold is Au. The word gold comes from the Indo-Germanic word "ghel", which means "shiny" or "yellow". However, it is also a chemical element that has the element symbol Au. This abbreviation, in turn, comes from the Latin word "aurum," which means "the gold." In the periodic table Au has the atomic number 79. The chemical element gold (Au) is a transition metal, which stands in the periodic table in the first subgroup, which is also called copper group or coinage metals. Gold also belongs to the group of precious metals and is one of the few metals, like copper, that has a color.
Checklist-Based Review
A review process conducted along a list of questions or required characteristics.
Checklist-Based Testing
An experience-based test design process in which the experienced tester uses a list of checkpoints that must be observed, reviewed, or remembered, or a set of rules or criteria against which a product must be verified.
Chemical Element Silver
The chemical element of silver is Ag. Silver is a precious metal. It also has the atomic number 47 in the periodic table and belongs to the transition metals. The word origin of silver is not yet completely clear, but the chemical element symbol Ag is derived from the Latin word "argentum". Silver is relatively soft and easily malleable. It is the heavy metal that has the highest electrical conductivity of all elements and the highest thermal conductivity of all metals. Its melting temperature is 961 degrees and its boiling temperature is 2212 degrees Celsius. The appearance of silver can be described as white shiny and metallic.
Chemical Element Silver: History
Silver has been processed by people since about the 5th millennium BC. Especially the Assyrians, Greeks, Teutons or Romans are known to have used it and at times the value of silver was even higher than that of gold. In the Middle Ages, Schwaz was the largest producer of silver - up to 80% of the silver produced at that time came from its tunnels. After 1870, however, almost only gold was used as a currency metal, which is why silver increasingly lost its economic significance and is now mainly used as jewelry.
Abbreviation for "Chicago Mercantile Exchange", the world's second largest exchange for commodity futures.
Code Coverage
An analysis method that determines which parts of software have been executed by a test suite and which parts have not, e.g., statement, decision, and condition coverage
Department of the world's largest commodity futures exchange NYMEX. The commodities gold, silver, aluminum and copper are traded on the COMEX.
Gold coins are one of the oldest forms of money. Gold coins have been used as a means of payment and currency since the 6th century BC. Country of origin of the gold coin is Persia. A distinction is made between numismatic collector coins and normal bullion coins. Especially numismatic coins come with a significant surcharge. The common gold coins consist mostly of 900 parts gold and 100 parts copper.
The degree to which a component or system can exchange information with other components or systems.
See also: cyclomatic complexity; degree of difficulty with which to understand, maintain, and test the design and/or internal structure of a component or system.
Synonyms: Module, Unit; (1) Smallest software unit that can be tested on its own. (2) Smallest software unit for which a separate specification is available.
Component Integration Test
Synonyms: link test, unit integration test; testing is performed with the aim of uncovering error states in the interfaces and the interaction of the integrated components.
Component Specification
The description of the functionality of a component in terms of the specification of output values for specified input values under specified conditions, as well as the required non-functional properties (e.g. resource utilization).
Component Test
Synonyms: Module test, unit test; testing of a (single) component.
See also: usability; The ability of a software product to enable the user to understand whether the software is suitable and how it is usable for a particular task and conditions of use.
Concrete Test Case
See also: abstract test case; A test case with concrete values for inputs and predicted results. Logical operands of abstract test cases are replaced by concrete values.
The arrangement of a computer system or component or system as defined by the number, nature, and interconnections of its components.
Configuration Management
Technical and administrative measures to identify and document the business and physical characteristics of a configuration item, monitor and log changes to such characteristics, track the change process, implementation status, and verify conformance to specified requirements.
Configuration Management Tool
Synonyms: Best; The repetition of all test cases that produced a defect effect before the defect correction. It is used to verify that the correction of the causal error condition was successful.
Configuration Object
A set of hardware, software, or both that is defined in configuration management and can be considered an atomic building block in the configuration management process.
The ability of a software product to comply with application-specific standards or agreements or legal requirements and similar regulations.
Contractual Acceptance Test
Acceptance test with the aim of verifying whether a system meets the contractual requirements.
Control Flow
A sequence of events (paths) during the execution of a component or system.
Counterparty risk
Counterparty risk, also known as counterparty default risk, refers to the risk in the lending business when a customer can no longer meet his payments, or at least not on time.
Synonyms: test; The degree, expressed as a percentage, to which a specified coverage element (e.g., branch) has been executed by a test suite.
Coverage Analyzer
A tool that objectively measures the degree to which structural elements are executed by a test suite.
Covering Element
An entity or property as the basis for the coverage level, e.g., equivalence class or implementation-level statement.
Massive price drop on the gold market or the stock exchange. The only advantage here is that new investors can get in cheaply.
A creditor believes his debtor that he will repay his debts by the agreed period. If the debtor is unable to do so, insolvency occurs.
Creditworthiness assesses the creditworthiness of a borrower and thus the ability to repay debts taken on.
Data-Driven Testing
See also: keyword-driven testing; A scripted method in which test inputs and predicted results are stored in a (spreadsheet) table so that a control script can execute all tests in the table. Data-driven testing is often used in support of the use of test execution tools such as recording tools.
Data Flow
An abstract representation of the sequence of state changes of a data object, where the states of the object are: Definition/New Creation, Usage, or Deletion.
German share index. Consists of the 30 most important companies traded on the German stock exchange.
Also called a bond or debenture. This is a debt instrument in which the debtor undertakes to pay the creditor the debt and a current interest payment.
Natural or legal person who enters into a contractual or legal debt relationship with the creditor. This is usually a monetary debt (loan), but can also be another type of performance. If the debtor is unable to pay his debts, insolvency occurs.
Activity of locating/identifying, analyzing and removing the causes of error effects in the software.
A place in a program where the control flow can branch into two or more alternative paths. A node with two or more outgoing edges.
Decision Coverage
The percentage of decision outputs that have been checked by a test suite. 100% decision coverage includes both 100% branch coverage and 100% statement coverage.
Decision Outcome
The result of a decision that determines the path to be taken in the control flow.
Decision Table
Synonyms: Cause-and-effect decision table; A table of rules, each consisting of a combination of conditions (e.g., inputs and/or triggers) and their associated actions (e.g., outputs and/or effects). Decision tables can be used to design test cases.
Decision Table Test
See also: decision table; A black-box test design process in which test cases are designed with respect to the execution of rules in a decision table.
Decision Test
A white-box test design procedure in which test cases are designed with respect to the coverage of decision outputs.
Deflation occurs when an economy's money supply declines, resulting in an increase in purchasing power.
Degree of Preservation
The grade is the classification of the quality and shape of a coin. It indicates how much a coin is worn by daily handling and circulation. Coin collectors are particularly interested in coins with a high degree of preservation, which means that they show relatively few signs of use. Roughly, it can be said that the higher the degree of preservation, the fewer circulation marks a coin shows. The lower the degree of preservation, the more defects, or wear marks it shows. Thus, the conservation value strongly influences the collector value of a coin. There is a certain scale with defined gradations, through which the coins are characterized either with words or with abbreviations. But not only the wear, but also other influences determine the collector value of a coin. In special cases, for example, damage typical of the preservation can increase the grade. For some coins, the conservation value can also be increased by restoration measures or cleaning.
Dental Gold
The fact that dentures are very expensive is no longer a secret. If you want to have bridges, crowns or even felling replaced, you should definitely make sure to take the old dentures back with you. This is possible without any problems and also makes sense, because: Dentures with gold components are cash money. If there are bridges or crowns with gold components in old precipitations, it is worthwhile to calculate the current dental gold price - this can be done quickly on the Internet. Gold can be found in old fillings, bridges and crowns. In 3 simple steps you will get an absolutely fair price for your dental gold:
  1. Separate gold and tooth: Each tooth has its own weight. Buyers often use this as an excuse to drive down the price of gold. If you are able to separate the gold from the tooth by a dentist or yourself, you will find out the real weight. Tip: Some dentists also buy gold. Since he is only a middleman, you usually get less money.
  2. Protect the quality of the gold: Since gold is almost as soft as butter, dental gold is never 100% gold. It is present in a so-called alloy. With pure gold we speak of 999/1000 or 999 gold. So it is almost 100% pure gold. Dental gold is more like 58.5% gold content (585 gold), which in other words is also 14 carats. With the help of the gold content, we can calculate the real gold value right away!
  3. Weighing gold: When it comes to valuable gold, we better play it safe! Always weigh your dental gold with an accurate digital scale. After that, you can calculate the value of your dental gold:
    1. Use the current gold price in euros. The gold price is given in 1 ounce (31.103 grams).
    2. Therefore, divide the gold price by 31.103. Now you have the current gold price per gram.
    3. Multiply this price by the weight of the gold in grams.
    4. The result multiplied by the gold content divided by 100 (weight * 58.5 / 100) calculates the value of your dental gold.
Another quick example? Let's say the price of gold is 1500 and you own 10g of dental gold, this will result in an amount of 282,12 . As soon as you visit your gold buyer, explain your bill in case an unfair price is called. Please also keep in mind: Your gold buyer also has to live on something and has costs for the insured shipping of your dental gold. A 10% discount to the actual value of your gold is perfectly fine.
Financial instrument or mutual contract that derives its value from the current fair value of a market-related reference variable, e.g. futures or options.
In mineralogy, the occurrence of pure chemical elements in nature is called native. Precious metals such as silver, copper, gold, and palladium are especially native. But also non-metals can occur in nature in their elemental form. Examples are carbon (graphite or diamond), sulfur or noble gases. However, these other substances are not usually called native, this term is usually used only for the precious metals. In total, there are about 20 elements in the periodic table in the native state.
The number or category assigned to an attribute of a unit by performing a measurement.
Synonyms: test driver; A test tool that invokes and/or controls a component/system under test.
Diversification of assets across different types of investment. The aim is to create a portfolio with the highest possible return while keeping the risk as low as possible.
The paid-out share of a corporation's retained earnings distributed to shareholders.
Dow Jones Index
Best-known American stock index. Consists of the 65 most important U.S. stocks traded on the NYSE. The shares of the 30 industrial companies are referred to as "blue chips". The DJI was first calculated in 1897.
Dynamic Analysis
Process of evaluating the behavior (e.g., memory efficiency, CPU usage) of a system or component during use.
Dynamic Analysis tool
A tool that provides information about program code at execution time. Such tools are mostly used to identify undefined pointers, check pointer calculations, and monitor memory allocation, usage, and deallocation, and flag memory bottlenecks.
Dynamic Test
Testing the test object by running it on a computer.
See also: Efficiency; The extent to which correct and complete goals are achieved.
See also: Definition of Ready; The set of generic and specific conditions that allow a process to proceed with a particular activity, e.g. a test phase. The purpose of entry criteria is to prevent the activity from being performed if it requires (wastes) more effort than creating the entry criteria.
End Criteria
Synonyms: Exit Criteria, End of Test Criteria, Definition of Done; The set of agreed generic and specific conditions accepted by all participants for the completion of a process. End criteria for an activity prevent the activity from being considered complete even though parts are not yet finished. End criteria are referenced in reports and used to schedule the completion of testing.
Error and Deviation Report
Synonyms: software test failure/deviation report, test deviation report; A document that lists an event that occurred during testing and needs to be investigated.
Error Density
Synonyms: Defect density; The number of defect conditions identified in a component or system divided by the size of the component or system. The size is expressed using known measures, such as the number of lines of code or function points.
Error Effect
Deviation of a component/system from the expected delivery, performance or result.
Error Management
Process of detecting, analyzing, handling and closing a detected fault condition. It includes recording, classification, and impact identification.
Error Management Tool
See also: error and deviation management tool; synonyms: Error tracking tool; A tool for recording and status tracking of error conditions and changes. It often includes a workflow component to track, control, and present defect assignment, correction, and retesting via reporting capabilities.
Error Report
A document that reports a failure condition of a component or system that may cause the system or component to fail to perform the required function.
Error Severity
The degree of impact that a failure condition has on the development or operation of a component or system.
Error State
Synonyms: Bug, defect; defect (internal error condition) in a component or system that may affect a required function of the product, e.g., incorrect instruction or data definition. An error condition encountered at runtime can cause an error effect of a component or system.
Abbreviation for "Exchange Traded Funds". Listed fund whose objective is to replicate as closely as possible the performance of the underlying stock market indices. Only a spread is charged for buying and selling.
Eurex stands for European Exchange and is one of the world's largest derivatives exchanges, formed in 1998 from the merger of DTB (Deutsche Terminbrse) and SOFFEX (Swiss Options and Financial Futures Exchange).
Abbreviation for "Euro Interbank Offered Rate". A reference interest rate at which European banks lend and borrow money on the money market.
European Central Bank, ECB
The main task of this European institution is to create and maintain the price stability of the euro. It was founded in 1998 and is based in Frankfurt a.M.
Equivalence Class
Part of the range of values of inputs or outputs in which a similar behavior of the component or system is assumed, based on the underlying specification.
Equivalence Class Formation
A black-box test design procedure in which test cases are designed with equivalence class coverage in mind. In principle, test cases are selected so that each equivalence class is covered at least once.
Evaluation Session
Synonyms: project closeout; A meeting at the end of a project in which project team members retrospectively evaluate the project and learn from the experience for the next projects.
Exchange-Listed Funds
Executable Atatement
An instruction that, after being compiled into object code, can perform actions on or with the data at runtime.
A structure element (e.g. statement, decision, ...) is called executed if input values in the test case cause its execution.
Exhaustive Test
Synonyms: complete test; test approach in which the test suite includes all combinations of input values and preconditions.
Exploratory Testing
An informal test design process in which the tester actively controls the design of tests by testing and using the information obtained during testing to design new better tests.
Extreme Programming
See also: agile software development; A software development method used within agile software development. The core practices are programming in pairs, extensive code reviews, unit tests for all code, and simplicity and clarity of code.
Experience-Based Test Design Process
Synonyms: experience-based procedure, experience-based test design procedure; procedure by which test cases are derived and/or selected from the testers' experience, knowledge, and intuition.
Experience-Based Testing
Testing based on the tester's experience, knowledge and intuition.
Synonym: failed test; A test fails when the actual result does not match the predicted result.
Failure Rate
The ratio of the number of error effects in a given category to a given unit of measurement (e.g., number of error effects per time interval, error effects per number of transactions, error effects per number of computer runs).
Synonyms: software feature; An attribute of a component or system, specified or derived from the requirements specification (e.g., reliability, usability, or design constraints).
Federal Bank
Central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany based in Frankfurt a.M. Its main task is to control the circulation of money and the granting of credit in the economy with the aim of ensuring the stability of the currency.
Federal Reserve
See Federal Reserve Bank
Federal Reserve Bank, Fed
Central banking system of the United States of America. Its main task is to create price stability and thereby achieve low unemployment, a long-term balance of payments and sustainable economic growth.
Fiat Currency
Currency without intrinsic value that is considered a medium of exchange. The opposite is commodity money, which has intrinsic value in addition to exchange value, such as gold and silver. The term "fiat" comes from Latin: The verb "fieri" means something like "to happen" or "to come into being." "Fiat" therefore describes something transitory.
A result of an evaluation that describes an important failure effect, problem, or opportunity.
The fineness of a precious metal expresses the percentage of a precious metal in a coin or bar. The fineness is expressed in parts per thousand. This means the specification in 1000 parts of the total weight. Other measures such as lot or carat were in use, especially before 1888. One way to indicate the fineness is to stamp it, but this is not obligatory.
Fineness especially for Precious Metals
For most precious metals, the highest fineness is 999.9 parts per thousand. Purity grades higher than this can only be produced at great expense and are not available in normal trade, as they are usually only used for physical or chemical purposes. For coins, the fineness is also referred to as fineness, fine or grain.
Fineness for Jewelry
In jewelry making, goldsmiths usually use finenesses between 585 and 999; the higher the fineness, the more expensive and valuable the piece of jewelry, of course. For jewelry from industrial production, the fineness is usually between 333 and 750.
Fineness (Net Weight)
The fineness or net weight of a coin or ingot is the pure weight component of the precious metal without alloys or inclusions. Inclusions are often used to change the color or hardness of a metal. However, the higher the fineness, the more valuable it is. The total mass is called the rough weight, gross weight, or shot, and the ratio of fine to rough weight is the fineness. For example, if a piece of jewelry weighs 3 grams and has a purity of 18 carats (650/1000), it is 650 parts pure gold, or pure silver, and 350 parts other metals. Now, to find out the fineness, you have to divide the precious metal content by the total sum of all metals and multiply this value by the total weight. Here would be the following calculation: 650/1000 = 0,65; 0,65 x 3 = 1,95g pure precious metal (silver/gold)
Fineness Stamp
In Germany, anyone can stamp their gold and silver jewelry with a fineness mark. However, the law does not make this information mandatory. However, if jewelry made of the aforementioned precious metals is stamped, it must absolutely comply with the legal requirements. Accordingly, only gold and silver material may be marked with the sign of the sun or the crescent moon and the sign of the company. Gold should be marked with a fineness of at least 585 parts per thousand and silver with a fineness of at least 800 thousandths.
Fine Ounce
Mass measure for precious metals. Refers only to the precious metal content. A troy ounce (abbreviation "oz") is exactly 31.1034768gr heavy. This weight is also called Troy ounce in Anglo-American. The standard gold bars of the LBMA have a weight of 400 troy ounces. From the total weight of the coin here all foreign substances and alloys are deducted, the result thus indicates the pure precious metal value. Especially for bullion coins, the value of the troy ounce is used, e.g. for gold, silver, palladium or platinum. But also the gold price, for example, is given in troy ounces (short: ounces). If it stands, for example, at 967.03 ', it means the price per troy ounce of gold. Normally, all coins are quoted in this unit, the only exception being the gold mark, which is described as weighing 12 grams. In the case of precious metal bars, on the other hand, the weight is predominantly given in grams, or kilograms, since large quantities of precious metal are involved here.
Fine Ounce: Origin of the Term
The word ounce comes from the Latin term “uncia, which means “one twelfth. In the Anglo-American system of measurement, the troy ounce is known as the troy ounce, named after the French city of Troyes, which was an important trading center in the Middle Ages. 1 troy ounce (oz. tr.) = 1/12 troy-pound ( = 20 pennyweight (dwt.) = 480 grain (gr.) = 31.1034768 gram (g)
Fine Ounce: Risk of Confusion with other Ounces
The troy ounce can easily be confused with other units of measurement called ounce. The following units of measure exist:
  • Common ounce: Often used instead of grams for food in English-speaking countries. 1 common ounce (oz) = 28.349 grams.
  • Pharmacist ounce: Formerly used for weighing medicines and chemical substances. 1 apothecary ounce (oz. ap.) = approx. 31.1 grams
  • Fluid ounce: Unit of measurement for measuring the volume of liquids in the English-speaking world. 1 fluid ounce = 29.5735 cm
  • Metric ounce: Still widely used in the Netherlands and Indonesia. 1 Metric Ounce = 100 Grams
Determination and quotation of stock exchange and market prices.
French term for "capital. It usually refers to a collection of different assets according to the principle of risk diversification.
Foreign Exchange
Foreign currencies embodied in the form of account balances or securities. Cash, on the other hand, is referred to as "notes and coins.
Foreign Exchange Market
International currencies are traded on the foreign exchange market.
Forex stands for Foreign Exchange Market and comprises the global currency market where all freely convertible currency pairs are traded around the clock.
Formal Review
A review technique characterized by a documented procedure and requirements, e.g., an inspection.
Forward Transaction
Purchase or sale of financial products at a fixed date and at a fixed price.
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
Germany's most important stock exchange, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main. Operated and sponsored by Deutsche Brse AG and Scoach Europa AG.
FTSE 100
Abbreviation for Financial Times Stock Exchange. Key share index for the British stock market.
Functional Integration
See also: integration testing; An approach to integration in which components or systems are combined with the intent of providing basic functionality early.
Synonyms: Functionality; The ability of a software product, when used under specified conditions, to provide functions that meet specified and anticipated requirements.
Functional Requirement
Requirement that specifies a functional behavior that a system or system component must be able to perform.
Functional Safety
The ability of a software product to achieve acceptable levels of risk of harm to people, business, software, assets, or the environment in a specified instance of use.
Functional Testing
Synonyms: Functional testing; See also: Black box testing; Testing based on the analysis of the functional specification of a component or system. Functional testing is the testing of a functional unit against its functional requirements. Appropriate times for functional testing are: Final testing after the functional unit has been manufactured After installation/integration into the system for which the functional unit is intended.
Futures, forward contracts
Standardized forward contracts. A futures contract commits the seller and buyer to trade at a predetermined time in the future. A distinction is made between financial futures and commodity futures.
Gold is a shiny yellowish precious metal (chemical element, atomic number 79, mass number 197, symbol: Au/ Latin: Aurum). It has excellent polishing properties and is extremely malleable. Around 85 percent of the gold mined is used to make jewelry - making jewelry processing the most important use. In addition, gold is also ideal for investment purposes: because it is inflation-proof, it is also bought by central banks as protection against a currency crisis.
Gold Alloy
In gold alloys, gold is combined or fused with various other metals. The most common are gold alloys with silver or copper. But there are also compounds with platinum, palladium, nickel, cadmium, zinc, iron, tungsten and tantalum. The color of gold is determined by the alloying additions. However, the color does not directly indicate the composition. With the help of treatment with acids, as well as polishing, the usual gold color can be restored. Measured per 1000 parts of alloy, there are.
Gold Art
Gold art is the artistic creation or decoration of objects made of gold. These can be large pieces such as gold chalices, crowns or candlesticks as well as small household items such as wedding rings, earrings or pendants. Often the term is used for gold jewelry.
Gold Art: Craft Techniques
The basic shape of a piece of gold jewelry is often created by casting. This is then further processed by filing, sawing, drawing, driving, hammering, rolling and similar techniques to finally be brought to the desired appearance by grinding, polishing or matting. In some cases, an engraving is applied at the end. By combining different colored gold alloys (yellow gold, white gold, red gold) as well as the combination of gold with precious stones or other precious metals, varied effects are achieved beyond the pure gold processing.
Gold Art: Examples of Works of Art made of Gold
In former times, it was customary to produce golden book covers as imperial gifts, which were supposed to correspond to the value of the contained handwritten books with artful depictions. For example, the Gospel book covers of the Codex aureus of St. Emmeram have been preserved. The Essen Golden Madonna from the turn of the millennium is an example of the combination of sculpture with gold craftsmanship, in that a wooden statue is covered with sheet gold. While ancient art made of gold often had to do with cultic objects, for several centuries secular pieces have increasingly been crafted of gold, once used by the nobility, today by the moneyed aristocracy, to bring a certain splendor into households.
Gold Art: Gold Artists and their Training
The artistic aspect can refer to both the craftsmanship of a golden workpiece and the artistic design. Depending on the golden works of art are designed by craftsmen or artists. Accordingly, various training courses lead to the gold artist - the traditional goldsmith apprenticeship as well as studies at a technical school for precious metal trades or studies at an art academy. Of course, the design and manufacture or decoration of objects made of gold can also be done by different people.
Gold Bar
See Good Delivery Bars
Gold Coin
See Coins.
Gold Deposit
Gold deposit is given in a place where gold was found more than easily. Gold has been mined for as long as there have been advanced human civilizations. Estimates suggest that about 160,000 tons of the coveted precious metal have been mined throughout history. This amount is just enough to fill two Olympic swimming pools. For a long time, gold was laboriously hammered out of the earth, and the miners' yield was correspondingly small. After the Middle Ages, when the easily accessible gold deposits in Europe were almost exhausted, new mining areas had to be opened up.
Gold Deposits: The Discovery of America
With the discovery of America, the gold-rich areas of the Klondike and California became available to the European soldiers of fortune. And rich deposits in South Africa, Canada or Russia were also eventually made accessible. But it wasn't until the industrial revolution and the associated technological advancements that the earth's gold deposits were really exploited on a large scale. It is thus assumed that today more gold is mined in two years than in the period from the end of the migration of peoples to the beginning of modern times. Like any raw material, however, gold is not inexhaustible. Similar to crude oil or natural gas, economic mining will therefore no longer be worthwhile in most regions of the world within the next 50 to 100 years.
Gold Deposits: Many Deposits already depleted
In many countries today it is already necessary to search a ton of rock for a gram of gold. Therefore, attempts have been made to extract gold from seawater. However, this failed because of the technical and financial difficulties. Larger gold deposits can still be found in Australia, South Africa and in the successor states of the former Soviet Union. Scientists assume that more than one third of the remaining deposits are located in these three countries.
The Gold Investor Index is calculated from data from BullionVault, the world's largest online exchange for physical gold and silver, and measures the ratio of gold buyers to sellers. This reflects the sentiment among private investors towards gold and ultimately the economic situation.
Gold Leaf
Gold leaf is a foil made of pure or very high quality gold. Gold leaf is mainly used for finishing non-metallic objects. The gold is pressed by many pressing processes to such a small thickness that it is relatively cheap and yet the optical effect of gold is visible. The gold leaf shines golden yellow like yellow gold.
Gold Leaf Production
The production of gold leaf is extremely complex and is becoming more and more perfect. Even in Roman times, gold leaf was extremely soft, with a thickness of three thousandths of a millimeter. Today, thicknesses of approximately one ten-thousandth of a millimeter are achieved. Gold is melted and combined with silver, platinum or copper, depending on the desired color. It is finally cast into ingots about 2 millimeters thick, which are then rolled very flat. Only now are the flat sheets of gold leaf separated with parchment paper carefully worked with spring hammers and pressed further and further.
Gold Leaf Use
>Gold leaf is used in various fields. A classic area is architecture. An extreme example is, for example, the Venetian Macau Hotel, in which over 3,000,000 gold leaf sheets of approx. 80x80mm each were used. Of course, picture frames, statues, etc. are also classic objects of use. More and more, gold leaf is also used to refine luxury food. Often, edible gold leaf is a reason for restaurant owners to significantly increase the price of a dish. But caution should be exercised, because 1 gram of gold leaf, which can be purchased for about 80 to 100 euros, is enough for 300 to 400 applications. This corresponds to about 30 cents per dish.
Gold Market
The global professional gold market is divided into two sectors: 1. derivatives (gold futures and options) and 2. physical, real gold. While the largest markets for gold futures and options are located in New York and Tokyo, physical gold is traded in London, Zurich and Hong Kong.
Gold Medals
The gold medal originally refers to an object minted from the precious metal gold solid for commemorative purposes. It is presented as a piece of jewelry on a special occasion. The gold medals are rarely produced, unlike the medals of bronze or silver. Solid gold is generally used here. Great personalities from history often initiated the minting of these special medals to very special events to record them for posterity. For example, they were minted for coronations at court or births. Many sporting events such as competitions, especially the Olympic Games, were and still are occasions for honoring the victorious athletes with a medal made of this precious metal. Also an extraordinary merit, for example, in society, science and politics is often honored with a gold medal. For a long time, it is thus ensured that even in the distant future many generations will remember these special events.
Gold Medals: Alloy
However, different alloys are also used in the production of the gold medal. This means that not every medal is necessarily made of pure or real gold. These special alloys should imitate the gold luster as well as possible. Brass or tombac, among others, served this purpose. Furthermore, a medal can also be covered with a thin layer of gold, in this case is called gilding. In this way, it can be produced more cheaply, and its external appearance resembles that of real gold. Even today, this manufacturing process is still used. At the Olympic Games, for example, a gold medal is first made of silver and then covered with a layer of solid gold.
Gold Mining
Gold is dissolved out of the surrounding rock (gold vein) in mines, sieved out of the sand or washed out of boulder deposits. Mountain gold is often encased in quartz. Soap gold results from rock weathering, which releases the gold and carries it away via rivers. Gold dust, flakes, or grains are obtained in this manner. Wash gold is extracted from rock sediments by repeated washing and sieving in bowls, pans or long troughs. The most important mining countries include South Africa, Canada, USA, Australia, China and Russia.
Gold Panning
Gold panning, compared to industrial mining in general, refers to the traditional exploitation of gold deposits by a prospector. Different methods are used here. The search for gold in the industrial sense is basically undertaken for economic reasons, but now also serves as a hobby or leisure activity.
Gold Panning: Gold Concentration at the Bottom of the Pan
This process is repeated several times. This results in a concentration of the remaining material on the bottom of the container. This remaining material then usually consists of heavy pieces such as, ideally, gold. Most deposits are mostly exhausted, so panning gold in this way is no longer profitable. Occasionally, fine gold dust can still be found. However, this may indicate further deposits of gold in corresponding rocks in the further course of the river. For the hobby gold panner this can still be an incentive.
Gold Panning: One of the oldest Gold Mning Methods
Traditionally, gold is panned in a dedicated trough, also known as a gold pan. This procedure is one of the oldest ways of extracting gold from non-solid sediments in rivers or streams. Large mining companies still use this method today to find gold deposits. A gold prospector without adequate financial means usually has only this option for practical extraction of gold.
Gold Panning: Procedure
The sand and rock material from flowing water is fed as a water mixture into a round container. By rotating and occasionally shaking the trough, the constituents are sorted out according to their size. The large particles remain at the bottom of the container, and the small pieces spread out along the rim. Then the vessel is tilted slightly, and a little of the water-sand mixture flows out over the rim.
Gold Quantity
The amount of gold on earth is the explored amount of gold on the whole world (mostly in tons). The amount of gold available on Earth is believed to be severely limited. The amount of gold is synonymous with the terms gold stocks and gold reserves. In the entire history of mankind, it is estimated that 170,000 tons of gold have been mined. Cast into a cube, you would get a cube with an edge length of 20.6 meters. Converted to the world's population, each citizen of the earth would have an average of 24.3 grams of gold at his or her disposal.
Gold Quantity: Mining and Consumption
For a long time, South Africa was the largest gold producer in terms of volume. In 2008, however, South Africa was replaced by the People's Republic of China. In China, 355 tons of gold were mined in 2011 alone. In second place is Australia with a production volume of 270 tons. Australia is home to the largest unmined gold reserves with an estimated 7,400 tons. Globally, 51,000 tons of recoverable gold are believed to remain. At current mining rates, the known reserves will last for about 20 years. But for years now, consumption has far exceeded extraction. The difference is made up partly by sales of the central banks' gold reserves, and partly by recycling and melting down jewelry and scrap gold.
Gold Quantity: What is the Gold used for?
By far the largest share was processed into jewelry. At over 79,000 tons, just over half of the total amount of gold available is consumed for jewelry of all kinds. In second place in terms of volume, with 28,600 tons, are the gold reserves of the world's central banks and monetary institutions. The largest foreign reserves invested in gold are held by the United States with 8,133 tons, followed by Germany (3,395t), the IMF (2814t), Italy (2,451) and France (2435t). Just under 25,000 or 16% is privately owned in the form of bars and gold coins, 18,000 tons or 12%, was processed into art objects. A small part with about 150 tons per year is used in electronic devices.
Gold Rush
A gold rush is the time when people sought wealth and financial independence to an excessive degree by mining gold.
Gold Rush: Gold and the Peoples
Gold, how does this name sound in the ears of man. Egyptians, Mayans, Romans and the Spanish conquerors of South America were addicted to the yellowish precious metal. They sacrificed it to their gods, gilded religious sites with it, and used it to pay for grain or their armies. Gold has a high specific gravity and can withstand almost any chemical attack. But with few exceptions, aurum, as it is called in Latin, was for centuries a metal not particularly useful in practical life. Its melting point is low and it cannot be forged into weapons or tools. But its unique appearance fascinated people.
Gold Rush: Wars for Gold
Wars were fought and countries conquered for gold. Even today, romantics dream of the legendary Eldorado, the gold country in the heart of South America that promises unlimited wealth. Especially the American continent is always associated with gold. Who does not know the gold rush, which in the 19th century brought hundreds of thousands of people to California and Alaska to seek their fortune. San Francisco is probably the most famous city that owes its existence to the search for gold. But for many, unfortunately, the longing for wealth was in vain. In the California desert or in the icy cold of Alaska, they sifted through countless tons of sand, stones and mud. They braved raids, famine, and cutthroats who robbed them of their hard-earned gold. And in the end, most of the soldiers of fortune could just about afford to go home. But with some Nebu, the Egyptian goddess of gold, had leniency. She poured out her horn of plenty on them and gave them and their descendants almost unlimited wealth.
Gold Standard
Monetary system in which the currency consists of gold coins or at least banknotes that can be exchanged for gold. The gold standard was prevalent between 1870 and World War I. In the U.S., President Nixon removed the dollar's gold peg in 1971.
Gold Usage
Gold has been used by people for thousands of years. Whether for ritual objects, jewelry or for gold coins and thus as a means of payment - gold has a very long tradition. Meanwhile, it can even be used as a food additive. These examples show not only the long tradition, but also the enormous value of gold, which underlies it for several millennia.
Gold Weight
The specific gravity of gold is 19.32 g/cm, the atomic weight 196.967u. The melting point is 1063 degrees Celsius, and the boiling point is 2960 degrees Celsius. The gold weight is internationally indicated in "troy ounces". One troy ounce of gold is equal to 31.1035 grams. A troy ounce is said to contain a maximum of one hundred percent gold. The "purity" is also called "fineness". The fineness indicates the proportion of pure gold in relation to the total weight. Another common term for it is the indication in carats. The indication in carats for gold is not to be equated with the carat designation of precious stones, where carats are subject to a weight indication (1 carat = 0.2 grams).
Good Delivery Bars
In the professional gold and silver market, only good-delivery bars are traded. These are cast exclusively by selected, recognized metal refiners, transported by recognized transport companies and stored in certified vaults. Such gold bars always have a purity of at least 99.5% gold and weigh around 400 troy ounces (12.4 kg). Silver bars have a purity of at least 99.9% and weigh around 1,000 troy ounces (31.1 Kg).
Government Bonds
Exchange-traded debt security issued by the government with a term of usually 10 - 30 years.
Gross Weight
Gross weight is the total weight of a composite of a substance and other materials. In the case of precious metals, of course, gross weight refers exclusively to the combination of a metal with one or more other materials. A typical example is the weight of a gold tooth sent in. This consists of the combination of gold and tooth. While the Pure Gold Weight would be the net weight, the Gross Weight is the total weight if the entire tooth were weighed.
Abbreviation of Graphical User Interface.
Hedgefonds, Hedge Funds
Special form of investment fund. Usually characterized by a very speculative investment strategy. Allow very high returns, but also a very high risk of loss, as investments are mainly made in options and futures.
Attempt to hedge against price risks / price fluctuations.
Horizontal Traceability
Horizontal traceability refers to the traceability of requirements (from idea to implementation) or the development of a requirement across different version statuses.
An improvement model for companies that serves as a guide for setting up, planning and implementing improvement measures. The IDEAL model is named after the five phases it describes: Initiating, Diagnosing, Establishing, Acting, and Learning (learning from experience): Changes in the levels of development documents, test documents, and components are evaluated before a given change to the specified requirements is implemented.
Statistical quantity used to illustrate price and quantity movements of goods and securities over time.
Price development in which the general price level rises continuously over a longer period of time. This is associated with a progressive depreciation of money.
Informal Group Review
See also: informal review; An informal review by three or more participants.
Informal Rview
Review without a defined formal (documented) process.
Impact Analysis
The study and presentation of the impact of a change in specified requirements on the development documents, on the test documentation and on the components.
Inaccessible Code
Synonyms: dead code; code that cannot be reached and therefore cannot be executed.
Incremental Development Model
A development model in which a larger project is developed as a series of increments, each of which implements a portion of the overall requirements for the project. The requirements are prioritized and delivered in the appropriate order in the increments. In some, but not all, versions of this model, each increment goes through a "mini-V model" of design, implementation, and testing phases.
Independent Testing
Separating analysis/development and testing responsibilities to encourage unbiased testing.
Insolvency or bankruptcy occurs when the debtor can no longer meet his payment obligations to the creditor.
See also: Peer review; A type of review that is intended to find defects through visual inspection of documents. Such deficiencies can be: Non-compliance with development standards, Non-conformity to underlying documents. It is the most formal review technique and therefore follows a documented procedure.
Installation Guide
Installation instructions are the instructions provided on a suitable medium that guide you through the installation process. These can be: a textual description, an executable installation procedure or a similar process description.
The process of linking components into larger groups.
Integration Test
See also: component integration test, system integration test; testing with the aim of uncovering error states in the interfaces and interaction between integrated components. In software development, the term integration test refers to a coordinated series of individual tests that are used to test various interdependent components of a complex system in interaction with each other. Ideally, the components to be tested for the first time in a common context have successfully passed respective module tests, subtests or component tests and are functional in isolation without errors.
Integrity Chain
The chain of integrity is an important component in the professional gold and silver market, which guarantees the quality of the "good delivery" bars. They may only be handled by certain selected refiners, transporters and vault operators. Purity, size, shape, appearance and marking are standardized for these bars. These standards (and therefore value) can only be guaranteed as long as the precious metal does not leave the integrity chain.
See also: functionality; The ability of a software product to interact with one or more specified components.
Interoperability Test
See also: functional testing, interoperability; synonyms: comptability; testing to determine the interoperability of a software product.
Intuitive Test Case Determination
A test design process that uses the experience and knowledge of testers to predict what failure states might occur in a component or system as a result of the failure actions, and to derive test cases in such a way that these failure states are revealed.
Investigation Effect
The effect/influence on a component or system by the measurement, e.g. by a load test tool or by a monitor. For example, performance may deteriorate when a load test tool is used.
Long-term investment of capital in tangible assets.
A variable that is read in by a component (whether it is stored inside or outside the component).
Synonyms: Source code statement; Syntactically defined unit of a programming language (e.g., assignment to a variable) that typically represents the smallest, indivisible executable unit..
Instruction Test
A white-box test design process in which test cases are designed to execute statements.
Institution that issues securities on the capital markets or has them issued through a syndicate of banks for the purpose of raising capital.
Iterative Development Model
A development model in which the project is divided into a larger number of iterations. An iteration is a complete development cycle that results in a release (internal or external) of an executable product. This product is a subset of the final product to be developed. The development progresses from iteration to iteration towards the final product.
Size indication of physics. Mostly used as a designation for the purity grade of gold. The higher the karat number, the higher the gold content. 24-karat gold is considered pure gold, which has the designation "gold 999". The fineness of silver is not expressed in carats.
Karat: Mass of Gold in Relation to total Mass
What is meant here is the proportion of mass in relation to the total mass of the alloy. Gold has a high molecular mass, unlike other metals. For example, the coinage “333 means that the gold has a proportion of 333 and all other additional metals have a proportion of 667 parts. These additional metals can represent silver, zinc, copper, or tin, but other non-precious metals are also used here. The proportions result from the atomic ratio to each other.
Karat: Other Gold Content Classifications
There are other gold content classifications here, but they are no longer all in use or are no longer used in Germany. This designation is abbreviated as “kt. For coinage on watches, the abbreviation "C" is also often used. The silver fineness, by the way, is not given in this unit. Here, a scale is used which consists of 16 parts and is called "solderiness".
Key Interest Rate
An interest rate set by the respective central bank for the issue of central bank money. The key interest rate influences the price level on the money market.
Keyword Driven Test
See also: data-driven testing; synonym: action word-driven testing; A script-based method that not only reads test data and predicted results from files, but also special keywords for control. These keywords can be interpreted by special scripts and control the test during runtime.
LBMA, London Bullion Market Association
Industry association that coordinates the activities carried out on the London gold and silver market. London is the center for global physical gold and silver trading. The LBMA also regulates the weight, shape, appearance and marking of professional good delivery bars.
Abbreviation for "London Interbank Offered Rate". A reference interest rate determined at the London banking center at which local banks lend and borrow money on the money market.
Limit Value
An input or output value that lies at the edge of an equivalence class or at the smallest possible incremental distance on one side or the other from the edge, e.g., the smallest and largest values of a range.
Limit Value Analysis
See also: limit value; A black-box test design procedure in which test cases are designed using limit values.
Liquidity ("fluidity") is ensured if sufficient free financial resources are available.
Load Test
See also: performance test, stress test; A type of performance test that measures the system behavior of a system or component as a function of increasing system load (e.g., number of parallel users, and/or number of transactions) to determine what load can be handled by a system or component.
Logical Condition
See also: test condition; Synonyms: Branch condition; A logical expression that can be evaluated as either "true" or "false", e.g. A>B.
London Goldfix
At the twice-daily gold fixing, the representatives of the five largest gold-trading banks determine the current gold price. This is considered a global reference value, according to which gold is valued and its price is determined. The London Gold Fix took place for the first time on September 12, 1919.
Term for a purchase position on the stock exchange that has not yet been "closed out" by the opposite position. However, the buyer has the right to purchase a good or service at a previously agreed price and within a certain period of time.
The ease with which a software product can be changed to correct error conditions, because of new requirements, to improve maintenance, or to adapt to a changed environment.
Modification of a software product after it has been delivered to correct error conditions, improve performance or other features, or adapt the product for a different environment.
Maintenance Test
Testing changes to a running system or the effects of a changed environment on a running system.
The human action that leads to a wrong result.
In general, this describes the profit margin. In securities trading, it indicates the difference between the issue price and the daily price of a share.
Market Maker
A market maker is a trader who ensures the tradability of, for example, precious metals or securities by continuously setting bid and ask prices and also balances temporary imbalances between supply and demand.
Master Test Concept
See also: test concept; A test concept that typically refers to several test levels.
See also: Capability Maturity Model Integration, Test Maturity Model Integration; The extent to which an organization has designed its processes (operations) to be efficient and effective. The ability of a software product to avoid critical error effects due to error conditions in the software [ISO 9126] See also reliability.
The process of assigning a number or category to an entity to describe an attribute of that entity.
Melting Point
The melting point, also melting temperature, is the temperature at which an element changes its state of aggregation from solid to liquid. Especially for pure chemical elements, the melting point is usually known. The melting temperature depends on the substance and, in contrast to the boiling temperature, only slightly on the pressure. With the help of a thermometer the temperature can be determined approximately, however, there are different methods for the exact determination. In the meantime, however, automatic melting point measuring devices are used in laboratories, which display the exact result within a very short time.
Melting Point: Importance for Goldsmiths
In jewelry making, a precise knowledge of the melting points of the individual precious metals is enormously important, as they influence important decisions. These can be which soldering method is used, whether the gemstones need to be set out of the material during soldering, and many more. Special attention should be paid to alloys with extremely large or extremely small melting intervals, since large melting ranges greatly narrow the choice of solders, and small melting ranges require meticulous control that is nearly impossible to achieve by hand.
Melting Point: Other
Substances that are naturally solid under normal temperature conditions, such as iron or calcium, logically also have a significantly higher melting temperature than water. And conversely, for normally gaseous substances such as oxygen or helium, it is well below zero. The noble metals are a group of substances in the periodic table with metallic properties. In addition, they are characterized by the fact that they hardly react with water and are thus resistant to corrosion. These precious metals include the sought-after substances gold, silver and platinum, but also osmium, iridium, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium. Precious metals have high melting temperatures, which are usually only reached with a strong fire or in blast furnaces. Melting precious metals is a practical method of casting them into ingot form, making them countable. On the other hand, jewelry melted in house fires is a real nuisance. The approximate melting points of precious metals are: silver: 961 C; gold: 1063 C; platinum: 1768 C; palladium: 1555 C; rhodium: 1964 C; ruthenium: 2334 C; iridium: 2466 C; osmium: 5000 C.
Memory Leak
Synonyms: memory leak; An error effect that occurs when a program and/or other parallel processes fail to function due to a lack of memory. This is caused by an error condition in dynamic memory management that leads to the incorrect release of memory after it has been used.
The measurement scale and the used method of a measurement.
Marks a point in time in the project (process) at which a specific work result or defined intermediate result is to be completed.
Mint Assignment in Germany
Since 1871, individual coins can be assigned to their mint by a capital letter on the reverse of the coin. In Germany, there were a total of 34 mints of which five are still active today. Thus, the letter "A" indicates the mint of Berlin, "D" - Munich, "F" - Stuttgart, "G" - Karlsruhe and "J" - Hamburg. Hamburg mint has a centuries-long history, where the first coin was minted in 834. Hamburg is known for the high quality of special coins and individual medals. Karlsruhe and Stuttgart have been functioning together as Germany's largest mint since 1998. Munich has stood for high-quality circulation coins as well as collector coins for 850 years, and Berlin has been considered outstanding in the production of coins and medals since 1280. European coins use both letters and symbols as mint marks. While the Italian mint in Rome is distinguished by the letter "R," the Dutch mint in Utrecht strikes a staff of Mercury on its products, and the Spanish mint in Madrid uses an "M" with a crown. When the German Empire was founded in 1871, the right to mint coins passed from the individual states to the Empire. By resolution of the Bundesrat on December 7, 1871, capital letters were introduced as the mint mark. The order of distribution was based on the order in which the federal states were ranked in Article 6 of the Imperial Constitution. There was one peculiarity, the letter I was omitted because too great a risk of confusion with the letter J was suspected. Since only a small part of the former mints is still active, some letters are missing nowadays. Frankfurt am Main, for example, had the letter C, Dresden E and Darmstadt H.
Minting offices or mints are traditionally responsible for the production of coinage, the designation as "office" they owe to their historically sovereign function in monitoring the quality of coins. In the Middle Ages, the position of Master of the Mint was created, an office that was passed down through generations in families. Today, the ECB controls European coin production. In addition to the normal coins used in everyday life, the institutions also issue special mintings of gold coins, silver coins and platinum coins.
Mints: Gold and Silver Coins
The gold euro is issued by the national mints of the individual euro states; in Germany, these are the mints in Berlin, Munich, Stuttgart, Hamburg and Karlsruhe. It has been available since 2002 with a face value of 100 euros as a 1/2 oz coin and 200 euros as a 1 oz coin. This coin was minted only in 2002. The motifs are almost always Unesco World Heritage Sites, such as Quedlinburg in 2003, Bamberg in 2004, in 2005 they chose the World Cup as a motif, followed again from 2006 German cities such as Weimar, Lbeck, Goslar and others. In silver there is the 10 Euro commemorative coin, in addition, a very prominent European silver coin is the Vienna Philharmonic, which of course is also available in gold. In Germany (and only here) the 10 Euro silver commemorative coins are an official means of payment. While the gold coins are made of fine gold, the silver content of the commemorative coins until 2010 in mirror finish was 925/1000 parts silver (sterling silver), since 2011 only 625/1000 parts, because the price of silver had risen. We have prepared for you an overview of various coins from different countries.
Mints in Germany
Mints are industrial facilities that have been designing, producing and delivering bullion and commemorative coins since the 19th century. These are state institutions that are subordinate to the government's finance department and also produce precious metal coins made of gold, silver, platinum and palladium as collector's items and valuable investments. The world’s first mint existed in Lydia, Asia Minor, in the 7th century BC. The first state mint still exists today and is located in England with the British Royal Mint. "Mint" or "mint" is often used as a synonym for the word "mint." Note the difference with mints. In Germany, only 5 of the original 34 mints for coins are still active. All mints are also involved in the production of the gold euro.
Mints in Germany: Designs
The gold coins, which are produced in Germany, are often simple in design and express the historical and cultural self-image of our country. The coins are dedicated to personalities or significant themes from politics, science, culture, architecture and sports. The motifs are intended to be a reflection of society and also to stimulate discussion and evoke memories. Approximately 10 collector coins are issued each year and the motifs are decided by the Federal Cabinet
Mints in Germany: Tasks
In addition to the production of the eight German euro circulation coins with the denominations 1 cent, 5 cent, 10 cent, 20 cent, 50 cent, 1 euro and 2 euro, which have been introduced since 2002, the state mints also produce the well-known commemorative coins. The minting houses receive the order for production from the Federal Ministry of Finance. The fact that in Germany the production is spread over several places is a peculiarity. In France and the Netherlands, production is handed over to a central mint in each case. In France it is the Monnaie de Paris, in the Netherlands the Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt. The commemorative coins are made of different materials with different denominations. Thus, there are 2 euro, 5 euro and 10 euro commemorative coins made of a copper-nickel alloy. Silver commemorative coins have a face value of 10 euros, 20 euros and 25 euros. The coins made of gold include the largest range. Here there are 20 euro coins such as the coins from the series “German Forest or “Native Birds. The "Musical Instruments" series is covered by the 50 denomination. Furthermore, there are German commemorative coins with a nominal value of 100 and 200.
Mints: Monitoring of Mints
By their very nature, coin manufacturers are subject to government oversight, and they outsource some production. The German mints have production at a total of 14 locations in Germany, with one of the mints in each of the five cities mentioned being responsible.
Model-Based Testing
Synonyms: Head of an inspection; (1) The leader or principal person responsible for an inspection or review process. (2) A neutral person who leads a serviceability test session.
Monetary Policy
General term for economic policy measures decided by the respective central bank to achieve its objectives. Also called "money market policy".
Largest electronic stock exchange in terms of the number of companies listed, based in New York. Name originated from the abbreviation for National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations.
Net Weight
See fine weight
Most important stock index of the Tokyo Stock Exchange.
Non-Allocated Gold
Term referring to the ownership of the gold. In contrast to "allocated gold", the customer is considered only as a creditor of the depository company. Thus, it is not his direct ownership.
Non-Functional Requirement
A requirement which does not refer to the functionality of the system but to features such as reliability, usability, efficiency, changeability and transferability.
Non-Functional Test
Testing the properties of a system that are not directly related to functionality, e.g., reliability, efficiency, usability, modifiability, and portability.
Nuggets are naturally formed lumps of gold or platinum. Normally they consist of small grains, but they can reach a considerable size. The largest nugget of gold had a fineness of 2316 ounces and weighed about 72 kilograms. It was found in Australia in 1869. It became famous under the name "Welcome Stranger". Later, another sensational find was made by a German mining entrepreneur. He discovered a gold nugget with a fineness of around 27 percent pure gold. The find weighed 57 kilograms. Strictly speaking, it was a quartz nugget with a high gold content. The term gold nugget is usually used in connection with a very high degree of purity. In Australia, such metal nuggets with purity grades of sometimes even more than 95 percent are frequently found. In Germany, the weight of the largest gold nugget found was around 10 kilograms, and in Russia there was a twelve-kilogram find of a platinum nugget in 1843. In most cases, melting down the large nuggets is the usual procedure.
Nugget: Origin of the Nuggets
The formation of nuggets occurs through the erosion of gold-bearing mineral rocks. Gold has a high chemical resistance, so it is insensitive to weathering and natural transport by streams or rivers. The mineral or rock surrounding it is often removed in the process, leaving the gold intact. In ores, the precious metal is usually contained in a very fine way, so that nuggets that are too large cannot be formed. For this reason, stocks of tiny pieces or dust of gold occur, which are then revealed by weathering ore.
Numismatics is generally referred to as the collection of coins. However, not only that, numismatics actually means numismatics, i.e. the scientific study of the history of money and money itself. This is mainly coins, but sometimes also paper money under the microscope.
Numismatics: Coin Collections
Meanwhile, there are some coin collections in world cities like New York, Paris or London. However, also in Vienna you can find the coin cabinet of the Kunsthistorisches Museum or in Switzerland many small coin cabinets. In addition, there are some private individuals who already have considerably large collections.
Numismatics: Coins
The coins are the object that is most often studied. Especially if you want to do historical research, coins of that time provide important information about life, politics and economy.
Numismatics: History
It has been handed down by Suetonius that already more than 2000 years ago Emperor Augustus collected older coins. However, the first scientific studies were probably made in the 14th or 15th century, when, for example, the poet Petrarch dealt with them.
NYMEX, New York Mercantile Exchange
World's largest commodity futures exchange in New York.
NYSE, New York Stock Exchange
Most famous stock exchange in the world in New York, often called "Wall Street" after its seat. It has existed since 1792.
Operational Acceptance Test
See also: Operational test; Synonyms: Production acceptance test; An operational test within the acceptance test, usually performed in a (simulated) production environment by the operator and/or administrator, focusing on operational aspects, e.g. recoverability, resource utilization, installability and technical compatibility.
Securities that give the holder the right to buy or sell something at a predetermined price within a certain period of time.
OTC, Over-The-Counter
From the English "over the counter". Term for over-the-counter trading in precious metals or listed securities, where the participants can trade independently among themselves. See also over-the-counter trading.
A variable written by a component (and stored inside or outside a component).
Over-The-Counter Trading
Trading between financial market participants that does not take place on the stock exchange. Often also referred to as OTC (abbreviation for "over-the-counter").
Paper Gold
Colloquial term for all forms of gold investment that are not backed by physical gold, such as futures, options, certificates and gold accounts.
Synonym: successfully passed test; A test is said to have passed if the actual result matches the predicted result.
Synonyms: control flow path; A sequence of events such as executable instructions of a component or system from an entry point to an exit point.
Peer Review
A review of a work product by peers of the creator with the goal of uncovering error conditions and identifying suggestions for improvement. Examples include inspection, technical review, and walkthrough.
See also: Efficiency; Synonyms: Time response; The degree to which a system or component performs its intended functions within specified conditions (e.g., constant load) in terms of processing time and throughput.
Performance Indicator
Synonyms: Key performance indicator; A measure at a higher level of abstraction for measuring the efficiency and/or effectiveness of development progress, e.g., defect detection rate in testing.
Performance Test
See also: efficiency testing; testing to determine the performance of a software product.
Performance Test Tool
A test tool that generates load for a specific test element, and measures and records its performance during test execution.
Perspective Reading
A review process in which reviewers evaluate the work product from different points of view.
The peso is the former currency of Spain, which is still used in some former colonies. Besides the official currency, the peso is also offered as gold peso or centenario. In these special cases, the nominal value is of course also significantly higher than indicated on the coin, since silver and gold already have a high intrinsic value.
Peso Usage
The currency with the dollar sign as a symbol was the direct predecessor of the euro in Spain. The use of pesos is still common today in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Philippines and Uruguay. In other countries, such as Bolivia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras and Nicaragua, the peso has already been abolished.
Phase Model
See also: software life cycle; A division of the life of a product or project into phases.
Physical Gold
Real existing gold that investors can acquire in the form of gold bars, coins or jewelry. In the case of coins and jewelry, in addition to the material value, there is usually a significant premium for processing, beauty and rarity.
Synonyms: Stub; A rudimentary or special implementation of a software component used to replace or simulate a component that has not yet been implemented.
Planning Poker
See also: agile software development, broadband Delphi; A consensus-based estimation method mainly used to estimate the effort or relative size of user stories in agile software development. It is a variant of the broadband Delphi method in which the team uses a stack of cards with predefined values for the estimation.
Portability Test
Synonyms: configuration testing; testing to determine the portability of a software product.
State of the test object (and/or environment) in which the test object (or environment) must be after execution of a test case or test sequence.
Conditions on the state of the test object and its environment that must be met before a test case or test procedure can be executed.
Predicted Result
Synonyms: expected behavior, target behavior; The behavior of a system or component under specified conditions, as determined by the specification or by some other source.
The level of importance that has been assigned to an object (e.g. error condition).
An unknown cause underlying one or more deviations.
A set of interrelated activities and resources that transform inputs into outputs.
Process Improvement
A program of measures for the purpose of improving the performance and maturity of a company's processes, and the result of such a program.
Productive Environment
Hardware and software products used by the user or operator on which the component or system under test is operated. The software may include operating systems, database management systems, and other applications.
Product Risk
See also: risk; A risk that is directly related to a test object.
A project is a unique set of coordinated and directed activities with start and end dates. It is carried out to achieve a goal that meets specific requirements, including time, cost, and resource constraints.
Project Risk
See also: risk; A risk related to the management and control of a (test) project, e.g. lack of human resources, a too tight time frame, changing requirements, etc.
Synonyms: Protocoll; A person who records all findings and suggestions for improvement mentioned during a review session in a review protocol. A minute-taker should ensure that the review minutes are legible and understandable.
(1) The degree to which a system, component, or process meets customer expectations and needs.
Quality Assurance
Part of quality management aimed at generating confidence in the fulfillment of quality requirements.
Quality Costs
The total costs incurred by quality assurance activities and by defect effects. They are often divided into costs of defect prevention, defect detection, internal defect effects, and external defect effects.
Quality Feature
Synonyms: quality control; operational procedures and activities within the framework of quality management aimed at meeting quality requirements.
Quality Management
Coordinated activities for leading and directing an organization with respect to quality. Managing and directing quality typically includes establishing quality policy and objectives, quality planning, quality assurance, and quality improvement.
Quality Risk
See also: quality characteristic, product risk; A risk relating to a quality characteristic.
Quantitative Easing, Quantitative Easing
English: Quantitative Easing, or "QE" for short. Expansive monetary policy of a central bank in which bonds are purchased in order to continue to supply the government and the economy with money. In this way, interest rates are depressed and companies and consumers are encouraged to invest and consume more.
RACI is a technique for the analysis and presentation of responsibilities. The name is derived from the first letters of the terms Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed. Responsible: responsible for the actual implementation (implementation responsibility). The person who gives the initiative for the implementation (also by others). He/she may also carry out the activity him/herself. Also interpreted as responsibility in the disciplinary sense. Accountable: accountable (cost or overall responsibility), responsible in the sense of "approve", "endorse" or "sign off". The person who bears responsibility in the legal or commercial sense. Also interpreted as responsibility from a cost center perspective. Consulted: consulted. A person who may not be directly involved in the implementation, but has information relevant to the implementation and therefore should or must be consulted. Informed: to inform (right to information). A person who receives information about the progress or outcome of the activity or has the right to receive information.
Trend of sharply rising prices on the stock market and the gold market.
Rational Unified Process
A proprietary customizable iterative framework for software development processes consisting of four project phases: Conception Phase, Design Phase, Construction Phase, Handover Phase.
Red Gold
For the production of red gold is usually not used pure gold. Special alloys of gold are used here, and a special copper mixture is added to the precious metal. This creates the red and somewhat darker color of the gold. These alloys are then called red gold. In terms of color, there may well be different variants. Thus, the metal can have a reddish, orange or brownish color appearance. A light violet is also possible. Sometimes, there are still demarcations made here, so there are other designations such as rose gold or brown gold. However, the transitions are usually smooth. The reddish color is due to the high copper content. However, this fact also has some disadvantages. Copper makes the precious metal more susceptible to oxidation. For this reason, a dirty-brown discoloration occurs frequently and quickly under correspondingly unfavorable conditions.
Red Gold: Rose Gold
This precious metal usually has a fineness of about 33 to 75 percent. A higher proportion of gold causes the copper admixture to fade. In this case, the so-called rose gold is created. The percentage of copper should therefore be correspondingly higher than that of other metal additions such as silver. Too high a content, in turn, causes deterioration of the properties of the material, and the alloy oxidizes and discolors. Rose gold is very valuable, because it has a high content of gold and a lower percentage of copper. Thus, it has only a faint red coloration. Furthermore, here there is an admixture of silver, which also contributes to a coloration. The jewelry also becomes less sensitive to external influences.
A deterioration in the quality of a component or system due to changes.
Regression Test
Retesting of an already tested program or partial functionality after its modification. The goal is to prove that no error states have been introduced or (previously masked error states) exposed as a result of the changes made. Note: A regression test is performed when the software or its environment has been modified. Due to the repetitive nature and frequency of these repetitions, it makes sense for test automation to be used for regression testing. In practice, the term regression testing stands for the pure repetition of test cases. The test cases themselves must be specified and provided with a target result, which is compared with the actual result of a test case. A direct reference to the results of a previous test run does not take place.
Regulatory Acceptance Test
Acceptance test with the aim of verifying whether a system is compliant with relevant laws, guidelines and regulations.
A set of characteristics that relate to the ability of a software/system to maintain its level of performance under specified conditions over a specified period of time or over a specified number of transactions.
Reliability Growth Model
A model that shows growth in the reliability of a component or system over time based on defect corrections.
Requirement Management Tool
A supporting tool for capturing, commenting, and managing requirements and their associated attributes (e.g., priority, know-how bearer). It enables traceability through the requirements stages to change management of the requirements. Some requirement management tools allow static analysis (e.g., consistency checks and detection of deviation from defined requirements rules).
Resistance Line
Price limit, which is difficult to penetrate upwards based on chart technical analysis. The opposite is the support line.
See therefore: Actual result, predicted result; Synonyms: test output, test result; The result of running a test. This includes screen output, data changes, reports, and messages sent.
A retest describes a test that is repeated. There are various reasons or motives for performing a retest, such as to check the quality of the test process itself, to confirm the successful, complete bug fix via the execution of the test that detected the relevant defect effect (dynamic test) or the relevant defect state (static test), or to determine the reproducibility of a defect effect previously detected via dynamic test.
An evaluation of a product or project status. It is used to uncover discrepancies with the planned results and to identify potential for improvement. Review is a generic term for management review, informal review, technical review, inspection, and walkthrough.
Review Moderator
See also: moderator; The person responsible for leading a review.
Review Plan
A document describing the approach, resources and schedule for the intended review activities. It describes, among other things, the following: documents and code to be reviewed, types of reviews to be used, participants, entry and exit criteria for formal reviews, and rationale for their selection. The review plan is a result of the review planning process.
A factor that could lead to negative consequences in the future, usually expressed by the extent of damage and the probability of occurrence.
Risk-Based Test
An approach to testing to reduce product risks and inform stakeholders regarding product risks, beginning in the early phases of the project. Risk-based testing involves the identification of product risks and the use of risk levels to guide the testing process.
Risk Analysis
Synonyms: risk; See risk monitoring.
Risk Level
Synonyms: risk hazard; discrete measure of the importance of a risk, determined by its components impact and probability of occurrence. The risk level can be used to determine the planned test intensity accordingly. The scale can be either qualitative (e.g., high, medium, low) or quantitative.
Risk Limitation
Assessing identified project risks or product risks to determine their level of risk, typically by evaluating the extent of damage and probability of occurrence.
Risk Management
Systematically apply practices to the tasks of risk identification, risk analysis, risk prioritization, and risk monitoring.
Risk Type
Synonyms: risk category, type of risk; A set of risks that share one or more common aspects, such as quality characteristic, cause, location, or potential impact of the risk. Certain types of risk can be reduced (controlled) by a particular type of test. For example, the risk of misunderstood operator interactions can be reduced by usability testing.
See also: Fault Tolerance; The degree to which a component or system will function correctly in the presence of invalid inputs and extreme environmental conditions.
RoI, Return on Investment
Ratio of investment amount to total revenues.
Role-Based Review
A review process in which reviewers evaluate a work product from the perspective of different stakeholder roles.
Root Cause
The cause of an error condition. If you fix it, then the occurrence of the error type is reduced or eliminated.
Root Cause Analysis
Synonyms: Root Cause Analysis; An analysis technique designed to identify the root causes of failure conditions. By directing corrective actions to root causes, the probability of recurrence of a failure condition is to be minimized.
Scenario-Based Review
A review process focused on testing the ability of the work product to implement specific scenarios.
Scrap Gold
Scrap gold is gold that can be found in the household as dental gold, broken gold jewelry or coins.
Scrap Gold; Purchase and Sale
Old gold purchase is one of the largest gold businesses that exist. Due to the rapid increase in the price of gold since the beginning of the 21st century, gold has become so valuable that even the stock as dental gold or even small amounts of jewelry have gained economic importance.
See also: agile software development; An iterative incremental process model for project management generally used in agile software development.
Security (in the sense of access protection)
See also: functionality; properties of software that relate to the ability to prevent unauthorized access to programs or data, whether accidental or intentional.
Sequential Development Model
A development model in which a complete system is developed in a sequence of several discrete, sequential phases without overlap.
Synonyms: Usability; extent to which a software product can be used by specific users in a specific context of use to achieve specified goals effectively, efficiently, and satisfactorily.
Serviceability Test
Synonyms: Usability testing; testing aimed at finding out to what extent the system can be used by specified users in a given context with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction.
Session-Based Testing
An approach to testing in which test activities - particularly test design and execution - are scheduled as uninterrupted sessions, often in conjunction with exploratory testing.
Security that establishes a right to a share in a stock corporation. The shareholder has a share in the company's capital stock and receives a share in the company's success (dividend). A distinction is made between common shares and preferred shares.
Share Index
Indicator used to show the price development of selected shares. Common indices are the DAX, Dow Jones Index and the FTSE.
Position resulting from the sale of an option contract. Denotes securities debt after short sale.
Short Sale
Sale of securities which the seller does not yet own himself but must deliver to the buyer at a future date. Used when speculating that the security is currently valued too high and will have a lower price in the future.
The representation of selected behaviors of a physical or abstract system by another system.
See also: emulator; device, computer program, or test system that behaves like a fixed system when provided with a defined set of controlled inputs.
Programs, procedures and possibly associated documentation and data for the processing in question on a computer system.
Software Development Life Cycle
The activities performed at each stage of software development and their logical and temporal links to each other.
Software Lifecycle
The period of time that begins when a software product is conceived and then ends when the software is no longer available for use. The software lifecycle usually includes a conception phase, requirements phase, design phase, implementation phase, test phase, installation phase, operation and maintenance phase, and sometimes a decommissioning phase. Note: These phases may overlap or be performed iteratively.
Software Quality
See also: quality; totality of the functionalities and characteristics of a software product that relate to its suitability to fulfill specified or presupposed requirements.
A document that describes the requirements, structure, behavior, or other characteristics of the system or component, ideally precisely, completely, concretely, and verifiably. Often, the specification also contains requirements for testing the requirements.
Spot Market
Place where supply and demand of spot and cash transactions meet. Trading objects are foreign exchange, securities and precious metals. Here, a mutual settlement period of a maximum of two exchange days is common. Also referred to as the "spot market".
Spot Price
Fixed price for the immediate, effective procurement of a uniform commodity that has already been produced. For gold, the spot price is the "live" price of gold, which can be seen in the media in gold charts. This constantly changing price is not produced by an official exchange or electronic trading system. Rather, it is an unofficial price average of all gold traded worldwide, futures as well as physical gold.
Difference between buying and selling price. On stock exchanges also the difference between bid and ask price.
See also: Maintainability/Changeability; The ability of a software product to avoid unexpected effects of changes.
A set of formal and, where applicable, mandatory requirements developed and used to prescribe uniform procedures for work or to provide guidelines (e.g., ISO/IEC standards, IEEE standards, DIN standards, and other organizational standards).
Standard Software
Synonyms: commercial off-the-shelf software; A software product developed for the general market, i.e. a large number of customers, and delivered in identical form to many customers.
State-Based Test
See also: N-Switch Test; Synonyms: State testing; A black-box test design technique used to design test cases to test valid and invalid state transitions.
State Diagram
Synonyms: State transition diagram, state graph; A diagram that describes the states that a system or component can assume and shows the events or circumstances that cause and/or result in a state change.
Statement Coverage
The percentage of instructions that were executed by a test-suite, relative to all instructions.
State Transition
A transition between two states of a component or system.
Static Analysis
The analysis of software development artifacts, e.g. requirements or source code, without executing them. Static analysis is usually performed with tool support.
Static Test
Testing software development artifacts, e.g. requirements or source code, without executing them, e.g. through reviews or static analysis.
Structural Overlap
Overlap measured on the basis of the internal structure of components or a system.
Support Line
Price limit, which is difficult to penetrate downwards based on chart-technical analysis. The opposite is the resistance line.
Synonyms: Reviewer, Inspector; A person who identifies and describes anomalies in a product or project as part of a review. Reviewers can be assigned different perspectives and roles in a review process.
(1) An assembly of components to perform a specific function or set of functions.
Systematic Test
Systematic testing is a structured testing method that is also used as a content-based model for test process improvement. It does not require a specific order for the improvement actions. Its test cases are derived and developed based on recognized test procedures or test design techniques.
System Integration Test
Testing the integration of systems and packages, testing the interfaces to an external organization (e.g. Electronic Data Interchange or Internet).
System Test
Testing an integrated system to ensure that it meets specified requirements.
System under Test
See test object.
Table Business
A blackboard transaction is when a banking transaction is conducted over the counter without a bank account being involved (e.g., buying precious metals such as gold bullion). Thus, a purchase or sale takes place under the cloak of anonymity and is not documented. See also OTC.
A central bank's program to phase out its quantitative easing policy (from the English "taper": to gradually stop) by curbing its bond purchases.
Technical Analysis
Method of forecasting future price developments based on certain historically repeating patterns of price curves. Its aim is to find out suitable times for buying and selling.
Technical Go-Live
See also: Business Go-Live; The Technical Go-Live takes place before the Business Go-Live (can also run simultaneously) and includes all technical steps (e.g. deployment, configuration, firewall activation) to be able to live the product in the corresponding environment.
Technical Review
See also: peer review; A discussion among a group of peer qualified personnel that focuses on reaching agreement on technical approaches.
A set of one or more test cases.
See also: Maintainability/Changeability; The ability of a software product to be tested after a change.
Testable Requirement
A requirement that is formulated in such a way that test conditions (and subsequently test cases) can be specified, and that it is possible to determine whether the requirement has been met when the test cases are executed.
Test Agent
Synonyms: Testware; All artifacts created during the testing process that are required to plan, design, or execute the tests. These include: Documents, scripts, input data, expected results, procedures for setting up and cleaning up test data, files, databases, environments, and other additional software and utilities used for testing.
Test Analysis
The process of analyzing the test base and defining test objectives. During test analysis, the test basis is analyzed to identify testable features and define the appropriate test conditions. Thus, it determines with measurable coverage criteria (what to test). Work results of the test analysis include defined and prioritized test conditions, each of which ideally relates bidirectionally to the specific test basis elements and covers them accordingly. For exploratory testing, test analysis may include the creation of test charters. Test analysis may also result in the discovery and reporting of error conditions in the test base, which should be fixed promptly for efficiency to avoid follow-up costs.
Test Automation
Use of software tools to perform or support testing activities, e.g., test management, test design, test execution, and target/actual comparison.
Test Base
All documents from which the requirements imposed on a component or system can be seen, or the documentation on which the derivation or selection of test cases is based. If a document can only be changed via the formal change procedure, it is a defined test basis.
Test Case
Includes the following: the preconditions necessary for execution, the set of input values (one input value per parameter of the test object), the set of predicted results, and the expected postconditions. Test cases are developed with a specific goal or test condition in mind, such as executing a specific program path or checking conformance to specific requirements (how to pass inputs to the test object and read target values).
Test Case Group
A test case group contains a set of test cases that can be meaningfully grouped together with respect to one or more aspects. This could, for example, be test cases for a module, for a test discipline, or for specific business processes. A clever organization of test cases via test case groups is a possibility to shorten the time of test preparation for the development of test plans.
Test Case Specification
See also: test specification; A document that specifies a set of test cases for a test object (including test data and pre/post condition), where the test cases each contain objectives, inputs, test actions, predicted results, and preconditions for execution.
Test Charter
See also: exploratory testing; synonyms: charter; A statement of test objectives and possible test ideas on how to test. Test charters are often used in exploratory testing.
Test Completion
The activity that makes test assets available for later use, leaves test environments in a usable state, and communicates test results to relevant stakeholders. Test closure activities collect data from completed test activities to consolidate lessons learned, test assets, and other relevant information. Test closure activities occur at project milestones (for example, released software systems, test project completion, test stage completion, maintenance release completion, test project termination, or agile project iteration completion). Test completion deliverables include test completion reports, open items for optimization for subsequent projects, as well as iterations, change requests or product backlog entries, and the finalized test assets.
Test Completion Report
Synonyms: test report; A document summarizing test activities and results. It contains an evaluation of the tests performed against defined end criteria.
Test Concept
A document that describes, among other things, the scope, approach, resources, and timing of the intended tests with all activities. It identifies, among other things, the test objects, the features to be tested and the test tasks. It assigns the testers to the test tasks and defines the degree of independence of the testers. It describes the test environment, the test design procedures and the test measurement procedures to be used, and justifies their selection. It also describes risks that require planning for when they occur. A test concept is thus the transcript of the test planning process.
Test Condition
Synonyms: test requirement, test situation; An entity or event, e.g., a function, transaction, feature, quality attribute, or structural element of a component or system, which can be verified by one or more test cases.
Test Control
See also: test management; Test control is the management task of developing and applying corrective actions to control a deviation from the planned procedure in a test project. Test control involves taking necessary actions to achieve the objectives of the test plan (which may be updated over time). Test monitoring and control deliverables typically include continuous or periodic test progress reports and, when completion milestones are reached, the final test report. All test reports should contain details relevant to the target group about the test progress at the time of reporting and summarize the test execution results. The reports should also address project management issues such as completed tasks, resource allocation/utilization, effort, identified obstacles or blockages, etc.
Test Coverage
See also: testing process; collecting and analyzing data on testing activities and then consolidating it into a report to inform stakeholders.
Test Cycle
Execution of the test process for a single specific release of the test object.
Test Data
Data that exists (e.g., in a database) prior to the execution of a test, and that affects or is affected by the execution of the component or system in the test.
Test Data Editor and Generator
Synonyms: test generator; A test support tool used to generate, provide, modify, or select data from a database.
Test Design
See also: test design specification; synonyms: test design; (1) See test design specification. (2) The process of translating general test objectives into tangible test conditions (note: test conditions are identified in test analysis) and, most importantly, into test cases. During test design, test conditions are transformed into abstract test cases, sets of abstract test cases, test charters, and other test resources. The test design answers the question: "How is testing done?". The transformation of test conditions into test cases and test case sets during test design often involves the use of test procedures (test case derivation procedures). As with test analysis, test design can also lead to the identification of similar types of defects in the test base. During test design, finding corresponding defect conditions in the test base represents an important potential benefit. Results of the test design are test cases and test sets (test case groups) to cover the test conditions defined in the test analysis. Initially, one develops abstract test cases without designing concrete values for input data and expected results, which can be reused over multiple test cycles with different concrete data and still adequately document the test case scope. Each test case should be bidirectionally traceable to the test conditions it covers.
Test Design Process
Synonyms: test case design procedure, test specification procedure, test procedure, test design procedure; A procedure by which test cases are derived or selected.
Test Design Tool
A tool for generating test data either (a) based on a specification that may be stored in a CASE repository (e.g., in a requirements management tool), or (b) from specified test conditions stored in the test design tool itself, or (c) from the code itself.
Test Element
See also: Test object; The single element that is tested. Usually there is one test object and many test elements.
Test Environment
Synonyms: test fixture; An environment needed to perform tests. It includes hardware, instrumentation, simulators, software tools, and other supporting resources.
A knowledgeable professional involved in testing a component or system.
Test Estimate
Determined approximation of a result on some aspect of testing (e.g., effort, end time, required cost, number of test cases, etc.) that is useful even if the input data is incomplete, uncertain, or disturbed.
Test Execution
Synonyms: test execution; The process of executing a test for a component or system that produces actual results. During test execution, test suites run in accordance with the test execution plan. Ideally, once test execution is complete, the status of each element of the test base can be determined as it relates to its associated test suites via bidirectional traceability. This answers questions about which requirements have passed all scheduled tests, which requirements have not been successfully verified and/or have error conditions due to failed tests, and which requirements are still awaiting test execution. This can be used to check coverage criteria and create test result reports that are understandable to stakeholders.
Test Execution Plan
A plan for the execution of test procedures. Note: The test execution plan contains the test sequences with their context and the sequence to be executed.
Test Execution Tool
A test tool that performs tests against an intended test element, comparing actual results and post conditions against expected values.
Test Frame
A test environment consisting of the drivers and placeholders needed for test execution.
Test Guideline
Synonyms: Organizational Test Policy; A document that summarizes at a high level of abstraction an organization's principles, approach, and key objectives related to testing.
Test Infrastructure
The organizational elements needed to perform the test, consisting of test environment, test tools, office space, procedures, etc.
The process consisting of all lifecycle activities (both static and dynamic) that deal with the planning, preparation and evaluation of a software product and associated work products. The goal of the process is to ensure that they meet all specified requirements, that they fulfill their purpose, and to find any failure conditions.
Test Input
The data that the DUT receives from an external source during test execution. The external source can be hardware, software or a human.
Test Level
Synonyms: test level; A test level is a group of test activities that are executed and managed together. Test levels are linked to responsibilities in a project. Examples of test levels are the component test, the integration test, the system test and the acceptance test.
Test Management
Planning, effort estimation, monitoring, and control of testing activities typically performed by a test manager.
Test Management Tool
A tool that supports the management and control of a test process and includes various performance features: Test resource management, scheduling of the sequence of tests to be performed, logging of results, progress monitoring, defect and deviation management, and test completion reporting.
Test Manager
The person responsible for managing the test activities, the test resources, and the assessment of the test object. Responsibilities include guidance, directing, managing, planning, and regulating the test object assessment activities.
Test Manager
See also: test manager; The person who reports to the test manager in large projects and is responsible for project management of a particular level of testing or for a particular set of testing activities.
Test Monitor
A software tool or hardware unit that operates in parallel with the system/component under test and monitors, records, and/or analyzes or verifies its operation.
Test Monitoring
See also: test management; A test management task that refers to the periodic monitoring of test progress. Test completion reporting compares the actual situation with the plan. Test monitoring involves the ongoing comparison of actual progress with planned progress using any monitoring metrics defined in the test concept. Test monitoring and control deliverables typically include continuous or periodic test progress reports and, when completion milestones are reached, the test completion report. All test reports should contain details relevant to the target group about the test progress at the time of reporting and summarize the test execution results. The reports should also address project management issues such as completed tasks, resource allocation/utilization, effort, identified obstacles or blockages, etc.
Test Object
The component or system that is being tested.
Test Oracle
Synonyms: oracle; source of information to determine the respective predicted results to be compared with the actual results of a software in the test. Note: A test oracle can be an existing system (as a benchmark), a user manual, or a person's specialized knowledge, but should not be the code.
Test Plan
A list of activities, tasks, or events in the testing process, indicating their planned start and end dates and their interdependencies.
Test Planning
An activity in the testing process to create and update the test concept. Test planning includes activities that define the test objectives and determine the approach for achieving the test objectives within the constraints imposed by the environment (e.g., specifying appropriate test procedures and tasks and formulating a test plan to meet a deadline). Test plans may be revised based on feedback from monitoring and control activities. Test planning work products typically include one or more test concepts that contain information about the test baseline to which the other test work products will relate via traceability information, as well as entry (also referred to as Definition-of-Ready) or exit (also referred to as Definition-of-Done) criteria that will be used during test monitoring and control.
Test Procedure
See also: test script; A sequence of test cases in the order in which they are executed, with all the actions required to establish preconditions and clean up after execution.
Test Procedure
The implementation of a test strategy in a specific project. Typically, it contains the decisions made to achieve the (test) project objectives, the results of the risk analysis, the test design procedures, the end criteria and the planned tests to be performed (test types).
Test Process
The fundamental testing process includes the following activities: planning and control, analysis and design, realization and execution, evaluation and reporting, and closure of testing activities.
Test Process Improvement
A program of activities designed to improve the performance and maturity of an organization's testing process and the results of such a program.
Test Progress Report
A document summarizing test activities and results, produced at regular intervals. It reports on the progress of testing activities against a defined baseline (such as the original test concept) and communicates risks and alternatives that require a management decision.
Test Protocol
The test log contains a record of all events that occurred during a test run or scheduled test run, as well as the status of each test point.
Test Realization
Process of developing and prioritizing (concrete) test cases, creating test data and, optionally, preparing test frameworks and writing automated test scripts. During test realization, the question is: "Is everything ready for test execution?". All test assets necessary for test execution are created and / or completed, such as test cases in test sequences are put in an optimal order. Test design and test realization tasks are often combined. Once the test realization is completed, ideally the achievement of coverage criteria defined in the test concept can be shown via the bidirectional traceability between test procedures and specific test base elements via the test cases and test conditions. Test realization usually also includes the creation and verification of test data (primary test data or test parameters; secondary test data or database contents) and the test environment. The completeness of the verification result documentation of data and / or environment can vary greatly.
Test Report
The summary documentation of test activities and results.
Test Script
Usually refers to a test procedure specification, especially an automated one.
Test Session
See also: exploratory testing; An uninterrupted period of time spent conducting testing. In exploratory testing, each session focuses on a test charter, but testers may also explore new opportunities or issues during this time. The tester creates and executes test cases and records their progress.
Test Strategy
Synonyms: Test Manual, Organizational Test Strategy; Abstract description of the intended test levels and how to proceed within these test levels, for an organization or program - valid for one or more projects.
Test Suite
Synonyms: test case suite, test set; The compilation (aggregation) of multiple test cases for testing a component or system, where postconditions of one test can be used as preconditions of the following test.
Test Target
A reason or purpose for designing and executing tests.
Test Tool
See also: CAST; A tool that supports one or more test activities, such as planning and control, specification, test data creation, test execution, and evaluation.
Test Type
Synonyms: test type; A group of test activities, with the intention of testing a component or system for some related quality characteristics. A test type is focused on a specific test objective, such as reliability testing, regression testing, usability testing. The test type can also refer to one or more test stages or phases.
See also: horizontal traceability, vertical traceability; The ability to identify related parts of documentation and software, especially the requirements with their associated test cases.
Trader, Broker
Stockbroker who advises investors on their investments and executes securities transactions for others.
Synonyms: Portability; The ease with which software can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another.
Trend Line
Price formation in the technical analysis of securities and gold prices. Is displayed in charts and shows price developments that move in the same direction over a longer period of time. A distinction is made between an upward and downward trend line.
Unittest Framework
A tool that provides an environment for a component test. In this environment, the component is tested in isolation or with suitable drivers and placeholders. Furthermore, additional support (e.g. debugging) is provided to the developer.
Use Case Based Test
Synonyms: scenario-based testing, scenario testing; A black-box test design process in which test cases are designed to perform use case scenarios.
User Acceptance Test
Synonym: acceptance test, user acceptance test; See also: acceptance test, beta test; acceptance test performed by future users in a (simulated) operational environment with a focus on user requirements and needs. In software engineering, a user acceptance test (UAT) is a test of whether software functions as intended from the user's point of view and whether the user accepts the software.[1] Software vendors often test this with beta tests. It is not to be confused with a system test, which ensures that the software does not crash and that the documented requirements are met.
User Interface
Synonyms: User interface; All components of a system that provide information and controls necessary for the user to perform a specific task with the system.
User Story
See also: agile software development, requirement; A user or business requirement formulated in everyday or business language at a high level of abstraction. User stories are often used in agile software development and capture the functionality a user requires, non-functional criteria, and also acceptance criteria.
US Treasuries
Government bonds of the United States of America.
Confirmation by providing objective evidence that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been met.
A memory element in a computer that can be accessed within a software program by its name.
Synonyms: verification; confirmation by providing objective evidence that specified requirements have been met.
Vertical Traceability
Vertical traceability refers to the connection of requirements on the same horizontal traceability level or a specific version status.
Process model for software development to describe the activities of the software development lifecycle from requirements specification to maintenance. The V-Modell depicts how testing activities can be integrated into each phase of the software development lifecycle and how the intermediate products can be tested (validated and verified). Note: Here, the general process model by Barry Boehm is meant.
Indicates the fluctuations of precious metal prices, security prices, interest rates and foreign exchange. This is calculated via the standard deviation of relative price differences.
See also: peer review; synonyms: structured walkthrough; A step-by-step presentation of a document by the author to gather information and build a shared understanding of the content.
WGC, World Gold Council
Global lobby organization of the gold mining industry. The aim is the market development and promotion of gold demand. The WGC is composed of 22 representatives of the world's leading gold mining companies.
White-Box Test
Synonyms: clear-box test code-based test, glass-box test, logic, logic-driven test, structural test, structure-based test; A test based on analysis of the internal structure of a component or system.
White-Box Test Design Process
Synonyms: structural test design procedure, structure-based test design procedure, structure-based procedure, white-box procedure, white-box test design procedure; A documented procedure for deriving and selecting test cases based on the internal structure of a component or system.
Yellow Gold
Yellow gold is a yellow gold alloy of gold with silver and copper, which give the gold a stronger hue. The lower the gold content, the more the depth of the yellow tone is reduced. Yellow gold is the most popular gold color, because it has a high recognition value and its coloration is the most similar to fine gold.
Yellow Gold: Appearance and Color Gradations
Normally, the ratio of gold and the added metals is approximately the same, i.e. one to one. With a high percentage of fine gold, the original gold tone is relatively intense and is increasingly weakened by the additions. However, the intensity of the color and the type of tint can be decided according to preference. A spectrum from very light gold with a correspondingly high silver content to a dark yellow-orange with a strong copper content is possible here.
Yellow Gold: Why?
Yellow gold is convenient because it can retain the color of the original gold and is easier to work with because of the added raw materials. Fine gold is rather soft and worse to cast than gold alloys.
Total return on an investment. This consists of interest, dividends and price changes in relation to the invested capital.